(��Z���ڦnظ�hݦ��%�-kv�w����;+���vl/���`��s����n�9Z_���'�A��������SgΝo��Z�x��K��ծ����˽W���������C7�޽5|���2��Ȳ�� K���%�T#p�G��䠔�% �����.�0����O�A��ҞB��Sa�c����� ŃzŸi�݀n��xl֘��O�#�Ff�e�x�j���n&6,[ �'����NU����$`�"Qe�\��� �p"],�� ,���C�0#1�Xt��4U��hFџ��e/H��ЫJD.g 8��j� #PK�L�uhd~� ��IC�Ҥ&A҈���P��7����*9,�1JR�0E�a�K`�� ��3 >:N�b��Em�� �uS"�4}�9�����{�Lo�� ���� endstream endobj 335 0 obj 629 endobj 313 0 obj << /Contents [ 316 0 R 319 0 R 322 0 R 324 0 R 326 0 R 328 0 R 330 0 R 332 0 R ] /Type /Page /Parent 305 0 R /Rotate 0 /MediaBox [ 0 0 504 720 ] /CropBox [ 0 0 504 720 ] /Resources << /Font << /TT0 314 0 R /TT1 317 0 R /TT2 320 0 R >> /XObject << /Im0 333 0 R >> /ProcSet [ /PDF /Text /ImageB ] >> /Thumb 272 0 R >> endobj 314 0 obj << /Type /Font /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /BaseFont /TimesNewRoman /Subtype /TrueType >> endobj 315 0 obj 819 endobj 316 0 obj << /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 315 0 R >> stream


0000004355 00000 n 13.2.3 is given by \begin{gather} \s {\begin{split} p & = x\A p\A^* + (1-x\A)p\B^* \cr & = p\B^* + (p\A^*-p\B^*)x\A \end{split} } \tag{13.2.4} \cond{(\(C{=}2\), ideal liquid mixture)} \end{gather} where \(x\A\) is the mole fraction of A in the liquid phase. At this point in the cooling process, the liquid is saturated with respect to solid A, and solid A is about to freeze out from the liquid. the diagram (phase fields) only one phase exists. As a result, the amount of phase \(\pha\) increases, the amount of phase \(\phb\) decreases, and the liquid–liquid interface moves down toward the bottom of the vessel until at \(217\K\) (point d) there again is only one liquid phase.Toluene and benzene form liquid mixtures that are practically ideal and closely obey Raoult’s law for partial pressure. 40, 161-185. Each section is a pressure–composition phase diagram at constant \(T\). From the positions of points b and c at the ends of the tie line through point a, we find the two liquid layers have compositions \(x\B\aph=0.20\) and \(x\B\bph=0.92\). We can calculate the liquid composition by rearranging Eq.

An alloy contains 70 wt% Ni and 30 wt% Cu is shown in Figure 1. 0000001845 00000 n This pressure is called the The dissociation pressures of the three hydrates are indicated by horizontal lines in Fig. However, when a liquid phase is equilibrated with a gas phase, the partial pressure of a constituent of the liquid is practically independent of the total pressure (Sec. 12.5.4). At the pressure of each horizontal line, the equilibrium system can have one, two, or three phases, with compositions given by the intersections of the line with vertical lines. 13.1. 0000002345 00000 n 13.13 and Fig. There must be at least one phase, so the maximum possible value of \(F\) is 3. The system point is at point a in the two-phase region. The partial pressures of both components exhibit positive deviations from Raoult’s law, consistent with the statement in Sec. The mole fraction composition of the gas in the two-phase system is given by \begin{equation} y\A = \frac{p\A}{p} = \frac{x\A p\A^*}{p\B^* + (p\A^*-p\B^*)x\A } \tag{13.2.5} \end{equation}A binary two-phase system has two degrees of freedom. It is of interest to consider the slope of the liquid/solid phase line of the H. 2O phase diagram. One common type, that found in the binary system of heptane and ethane, is shown in Fig. 13.3 will describe some interesting ternary systems.A binary system has two components; \(C\) equals \(2\), and the number of degrees of freedom is \(F=4-P\). 0000001122 00000 n Use P + F = C + 2. 12.8.2 that if one constituent of a binary liquid mixture exhibits positive deviations from Raoult’s law, with only one inflection point in the curve of fugacity versus mole fraction, the other constituent also has positive deviations from Raoult’s law.