The way that these loads are transferred into the airframe will guide the design of structures that interface with the landing gear.Impact loads such as from bird strikes, hail, dust, sand, and runway debris must also be considered. Sir Isaac Newton is better known for his discovery of the law of universal gravity (every object in this universe … To be able … Aerodynamic lift force and aerodynamic resistance are directly proportional to operating speed squared. These parameters include drag, lift, moment, center of pressure and pressure coefficient, to name a few important ones. To illustrate this, drag and lift-to-drag data are reviewed, covering the first half-century of powered, controllable flight. Considering first the full curve (a), which is for a moderately thick (13%) section of zero camber, it is seen to consist of a straight line passing through the origin, curving over at the higher values of C L, reaching a maximum value of C L max at an incidence of α s, known as the stalling point.

It therefore strengthens the side and trailing vortices and as a result promotes an increase in front end Considerations of failure mechanisms in polymer matrix composites in the design of aerospace structures the Length Scale Equation with an Explicit Algebraic Reynolds Stress Constitutive RelationInvestigation of vehicle ride height and wheel position influence on the aerodynamic forces of ground vehiclesAs the ride height of vehicle is changing when using floating struts, more air is allowed to pass underneath the body which leads to some important changes in Aerodynamic effects on pantographs and overhead wire systemsComputational Mechanics–New Frontiers for the New MillenniumThe main rotor blade shows a complex state of loading during the helicopter’s flight. Did You Know? The project is managed by FOI and is partly funded by the European Union (project ref: G4RD-CT-2001-00448). This is one of the reasons causing uneven distribution of pantograph and overhead contact line contact forces on front and rear strips.Under the impact of side wind, running wind of trains, various cross-sections of lines (such as upslope, cutting, viaduct, and slope), and sudden flow changes from coming in and out of tunnels, aerodynamic characteristics ofTo make sure that pantographs have the identical aerodynamic lift forces required for reliable current collections in both directions, proper airflow-regulating fins should be mounted onto heads.To ensure that front and rear pans of double-strips pantographs have consistent aerodynamic lift force and to provide necessary aerodynamic lift force for pantographs, proper airflow regulating fins should be mounted onto strips. The HiAer project is a collaboration between DLR, ONERA, KTH, HUT, TUB, Alenia, EADS Airbus, QinetiQ and FOI. Aerodynamic Lift and Drag and the Theory of Flight . In terms of the mechanism of dynamic stability, it is considered that only unstable vibration induces large-amplitude movement similar to galloping. The wings of birds were the original inspiration for the design of aerofoils however it was not until 1799 that engineer George Cayley carried out the first methodical study of the performance of aerofoils.

Lift is created by deflecting a moving fluid (liquid or gas), and drag is generated on a body in a wide variety of ways.

These will be discussed in detail in In all of these cases, wherever loads are transferred from one substructure to another or where attachments are present, the effects of fasteners and joint design are paramount. This produces a greater pressure difference between the upper and lower surfaces and consequently greatly enhances the ) induces still more air to flow beneath the body with the downward curving entry gap shape producing a venturi effect. However, when trains enter tunnels, there can be a significant reversed airflow back from the tunnel towards the entry portal because of the air being displaced by the train.

When air density is twice the original value, aerodynamic lift force and aerodynamic resistance will be twice the original ones, namely aerodynamic lift force and aerodynamic resistance are in direct proportion to air density.All components of pantographs, under joint effect of aerodynamic lift force and aerodynamic resistance, finally generate at the strip an aerodynamic lift force vertical to contact line—aerodynamic force.Usually, a special structure is selected in accordance with aerodynamic principle so that pantograph generates an expected aerodynamic force In common with many other aerodynamic phenomena, pantograph aerodynamic forces vary with the square of the relative wind speed acting The ideal pantograph would have aerodynamic lift that is neutral with increasing train speed and also in each direction of running if the pantograph is asymmetric, as is the single-arm pantograph. From Newton's second law of motion, the aerodynamic forces on the body (lift and drag) are directly related to the change in momentum of the fluid with time. If an aircraft wing, or airfoil, is to fulfill its function, it must experience an upward lift force, as well as a drag force, when the aircraft is in motion. If proper measures can be taken to improve the dynamic stability of the conductor system and increase the threshold of system instability, goal of eliminating galloping can be achieved.